Conventional Computing VS Quantum Computing
There is a constant improvement in the computing world. Everyday new device is launched, and this new device contains various changes in technology and development. These devices make previous versions unfit for changes. Those were the days when the size of the room and the size of the computer were the same, and calculations took hours.
In the past time, we could touch the screen devices with the help of vacuum tubes, integrated circuits, and transistors. But now, the advancement of technology has also changed computing methods. For the new devices, the style of programming is also changed. Now, if we try to write the program with the help of traditional method, then it will not work. Now this time, the software embedded needs to be interactive, efficient, and more responsible. The basic difference between old devices and new devices is that the new devices contain revolutionized hardware with faster, fewer heat emissions and are able to perform more than one task simultaneously compared to the old devices.
Conventional computing or conventional computers are the fourth generation of computers. In this computing, the classical phenomenon of the electric circuit is used. According to this phenomenon, there is only one state at a time which is either ON or OFF. At the same time, quantum computing or quantum computers are the fifth generation of computers. The most popular computing is quantum computing. The working of conventional computers and quantum computers are totally different. In quantum computing, the phenomenon of quantum mechanism is used. According to this phenomenon, there can be more than one state at the same time. In order to understand it more, we are going to explain convention computing and quantum computing in detail.
Conventional computing can be described as a classical phenomenon of computing devices. There are basically two main tasks performed by conventional computers that are storing data or information inside memory and after that applying computation, algorithm, and formulas on that data so that the result can be generated on the basis of requirements, which are described as follows:
- On the basis of the electric circuits that contain two states: ON and OFF. With the help of 1, the ON state is represented, and with the help of 0, the OFF state is represented.
- In conventional computers, a Bit is known as the basic building block. There are two states of a bit, i.e., 0 or 1. With the help of 0’s and 1’s only, all the information is represented. For this, an international encoding standard: Unicode is development which is used to represent all newline, special symbols, alphabets, carriage return, digits, linefeed, characters, etc.
- The calculations are performed with the help of circuits. When we combine transistors, only then the circuits are formed. The circuits are also known as logic gates. There are only two states for all these devices, i.e., On or Off.
- The CMOS transistors are made with the help of metal oxide semiconductors, and these transistors are mostly in use.
- With the help of CPU, all processing is usually done. The CPU (Central processing unit) contains a Control unit to manage Arithmetical and logical units, and these units are used to perform actual calculations.
Conventional computing has a disadvantage, i.e., it contains some problems that would take a lot of time, approximately billions of years to solve. That means the solution to these problems would never come.
Quantum computing can be described on the basis of laws of quantum physics. Quantum computing is based on the possibility that the possible numbers of states are more than two. A quantum particle can be described by the atom, which has the ability to move forward and backward in time, and it also has the ability to exist in two places at the same time. The strange behavior of computing is utilized by quantum computers for the purpose of faster computing power, which is described as follows:
- Quantum computing is based on quantum physics laws. According to this law, a particle is able to contain more than two states.
- Here, Qubit is also known as the quantum bit. It is a basic building block, which is based on the spinning electrons phenomenon. There is a superposition state except 0 and 1 in Qubit, which is 0 and 1 at the same time. These types of qubits are isolated from their peripheral environment.
- With the help of quantum physics law, all the circuitry can be revolutionized.
- The SQUID (Superconducting quantum interference device) is a type of very sensitive magnetometer, which has the ability to measure very subtle magnetic fields, which is based on the superconducting loops.
- The QPUs (Quantum processing unit) is a type of quantum chip made of a lot of interconnected qubits.
- If there is a problem of optimization such as parking of cars, in this case, these types of computers are best. The computing habits are changing with the help of other things such as uncrackable encryption standards for the purpose of data security, handling tremendous amounts of data, billions of times faster-computing speed, and many more.
Every personal device does not require complex systems like quantum computers, and that’s why quantum computers cannot replace personal computers. If there is a complex problem, the quantum computers would be dedicatedly worked.
Conventional Computing VS Quantum Computing
- In conventional computing, the classical phenomenon of an electric circuit is used, which says that there is only one state at a time, either ON or OFF. While, in quantum computing, the phenomenon of quantum mechanisms such as entanglement and superposition is used, which say that there can be more than one state at the same time.
- With the help of bit 0 or 1, the information storage and manipulation are done in conventional The bit is further based on charge or voltage. 0 is used to show the low voltage, and 1 is used to show the high voltage or current. If the number of charges is linked together, it will only increase the computing power exponentially. With the help of qubit or Quantum bit, information storage and manipulation are done in quantum computers. The qubit is further based on the phenomenon of spinning electrons or on the polarization of a single photon. The power of quantum computing will be exponentially increased if numbers of qubits are linked together.
- Classical physics is used to govern the behavior of a circuit. The calculations are performed with the help of circuits. When we combine transistors, only then the circuits are formed. While, in quantum computers, the circuitry is governed with the help of quantum mechanism or quantum physics.
- Conventional computing represents the information with the help of binary codes: bit 0 or bit 1. If our everyday task is required to be completed with the help of a computer, in this case, classical computers will be useful. While quantum computing represents the information with the help of Qubits 0, 1, and superposition state of both 0 and 1. If we want to run simulations and data analyses like drug and chemical trials, in this case, quantum computers will be very useful. The computers, which we used for chemical and drug trials, must have to be kept ultra-cold. However, these types of computers are very difficult to build, and it is also very expensive.
- In conventional computing, the basic building blocks are described by the CMOS transistors. While, in quantum computing, the basic building blocks are described by the quantum transistors or SQUID, or Superconducting quantum interference device. As a result, we can say that quantum computing is much more powerful as compared to conventional computing. We can use quantum computing in big data analysis and simulations.
- With the help of CPU (central processing unit), the data processing is done in conventional The CPU (Central processing unit) contains a Control unit to manage Arithmetical and logical units, and these units are used to perform actual calculations. With the help of QPU or quantum processing unit, the data processing is done in quantum computing. The QPU is used to contain the number of interconnected qubits.
- In conventional computers, we can speed up the computers with the help of adding memory. Meanwhile, more complicated problems can be easily solved with the help of quantum For example: The quantum computers of Google, which are in development, are able to help with many processes like it can help to create more energy-efficient batteries or to speed up the training of machine learning.
- There are various other applications in quantum computing. These applications are able to share information secretly. The other types of method include fighting cancer and a lot of problems related to health like cancer and developing new types of drugs. Quantum computers have the ability to improve radars, and they are also helpful to detect many things like aircrafts and missiles. Quantum computing is helpful in many other areas, including the environment. For example: With the help of this computer, we are able to clean the water with chemical sensors.
- The quantum computers are many times faster as compared to conventional computers as well as supercomputers. Sycamore is the quantum computer of Google that is able to perform the calculation in just 200 seconds. While, IBM’S summit known as the world’s fastest computer, will solve the problem in 10,000 years. This claim is disputed by IBM. They said that it would take 5 days. But 2.5 days is still very much time as compared to 200 seconds. It is basically 1,000x slower as compared to Google’s quantum machine.
Qualities of Conventional computer over Quantum computer
- Conventional computers have a unique quality that does not have in the quantum computer, i.e., conventional computers are able to store data. In contrast, the memory of quantum computers can only be last a few hundred microseconds maximum.
- Just like conventional computers, quantum computers are not able to give straightforward answers. In conventional computers, we can get the output very easily. We need to just provide input. After that, with the help of an algorithm, the given input is processed. Lastly, conventional computers generate an output. In contrast, quantum computers always need a range of different inputs, and with the help of these inputs, the quantum computer returns a range of possibilities. Although in quantum computing, we do not get a straightforward answer. We will get an estimate of occurring of different types of answers.
- If we are dealing with a complex problem with a complex algorithm as well as many different input variables, in this case, quantum computing will be very useful. These types of processes in conventional computing will take a very long time. The range of possible input variables and solutions to a problem are able to narrow down with the help of quantum computing. Now, with the help of conventional computing, we can test the range of inputs provided by quantum computers and get a straightforward answer.
- In the upcoming decades, conventional computing will always remain very useful. Due to the continued relevance of conventional computing, a question occurs that quantum computing will take how much time to be developed enough to reach mainstream adoption. Another problem of a quantum computer is their fuzzy nature of returned solutions. In our daily life, people always require straightforward answers, which will only be obtained with the help of conventional
- To keep the quantum computers, we always require the temperature close to absolute zero, but we don’t require that in conventional computers. In quantum technology, this temperature is equal to -270 degrees Celsius and -450 degrees Fahrenheit. These types of powerful refrigerators are not contained at home by average consumers. If these average users think about the corresponding energy consumption, it will always be advisable not to place quantum computers at home because it will also impact the environment. Because of all these challenges in quantum computers, we can say that these computers are unable to become a fixture of a lot of businesses and households.
- The research in industry and academia are able to access quantum computers with the help of cloud computing. However, quantum technology is still in its early stages. Various providers of quantum computing already offer cloud access to it, such as Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Service. In the next decade, a lot of industries will be transformed by quantum computing, and there is no doubt about it. However, conventional computers will always play a very important role in our daily life.
With the help of above comparison, we can say that conventional computers and quantum computers have different features. In conventional computing, we will get the answer to normal problems very easily, but if we have a complex problem, conventional computing will take a very long time to solve it. In this case, quantum computing will be very useful.