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We can use the **aggregate()** function in R to produce summary statistics for one or more variables in a data frame.

This function uses the following basic syntax:

**aggregate(sum_var ~ group_var, data = df, FUN = mean)**

where:

**sum_var:**The variable to summarize**group_var:**The variable to group by**data:**The name of the data frame**FUN:**The summary statistic to compute

This tutorial provides several examples of how to use this function to aggregate one or more columns at once in R, using the following data frame as an example:

#create data frame df frame(team=c('A', 'A', 'A', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'C', 'C'), conf=c('E', 'E', 'W', 'W', 'W', 'W', 'W', 'W'), points=c(1, 3, 3, 4, 5, 7, 7, 9), rebounds=c(7, 7, 8, 3, 2, 7, 14, 13)) #view data frame df team conf points rebounds 1 A E 1 7 2 A E 3 7 3 A W 3 8 4 B W 4 3 5 B W 5 2 6 B W 7 7 7 C W 7 14 8 C W 9 13

**Example 1: Summarize One Variable & Group by One Variable**

The following code shows how to find the mean points scored, grouped by team:

#find mean points scored, grouped by team aggregate(points ~ team, data = df, FUN = mean, na.rm = TRUE) team points 1 A 2.333333 2 B 5.333333 3 C 8.000000

**Example 2: Summarize One Variable & Group by Multiple Variables**

The following code shows how to find the mean points scored, grouped by team and conference:

#find mean points scored, grouped by team and conference aggregate(points ~ team + conf, data = df, FUN = mean, na.rm = TRUE) team conf points 1 A E 2.000000 2 A W 3.000000 3 B W 5.333333 4 C W 8.000000

**Example 3: Summarize Multiple Variables & Group by One Variable**

The following code shows how to find the mean points and the mean rebounds, grouped by team:

#find mean points scored, grouped by team and conference aggregate(cbind(points,rebounds) ~ team, data = df, FUN = mean, na.rm = TRUE) team points rebounds 1 A 2.333333 7.333333 2 B 5.333333 4.000000 3 C 8.000000 13.500000

**Example 4: Summarize Multiple Variables & Group by Multiple Variables**

The following code shows how to find the mean points and the mean rebounds, grouped by team and conference:

#find mean points scored, grouped by team and conference aggregate(cbind(points,rebounds) ~ team + conf, data = df, FUN = mean, na.rm = TRUE) team conf points rebounds 1 A E 2.000000 7.0 2 A W 3.000000 8.0 3 B W 5.333333 4.0 4 C W 8.000000 13.5

**Additional Resources**

How to Calculate the Mean of Multiple Columns in R

How to Sum Specific Columns in R

How to Sum Specific Rows in R