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What’s a Bibliography

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What’s a Bibliography?

A bibliography is a list of all the references you used in the analysis process (whether or not they were referenced). In general writing, a bibliography must contain the following items or points in it:

  • The name of the author
  • Titles
  • The date of publishing.
  • the page numbers of your sources.
  • the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources

What is Annotated Bibliography and its working?

An annotated bibliography is similar to a bibliography, but with one key difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic material is accompanied by a brief summary of the source’s content, quality, and utility.

So, what distinguishes a bibliography from a “Works Cited” or “References” list?

Only references to certain items referenced in the paper are included in the Works Cited or References list.

Bibliography (from Ancient Greek: βιβλ?ον, romanized: biblion, lit. ‘book’ and -γραφ?α, -graphía, ‘writing’), as a discipline, is traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from Ancient Greek: -λογ?α, romanized: -logía). Bibliography, according to Carter and Barker (2010), is a two-fold scholarly discipline that includes both an ordered listing of books (enumerative bibliography) and a systematic overview of books as items.


In the first three centuries CE, Greek authors used the term bibliographia (o) to refer to the hand copying of books. The term began to be used for “the scholarly task of composing books” in the 12th century.

The modern sense of the word, that of book description, emerged in the 17th century. Currently, research that regard the book as a content item have been added to the field of bibliography.

Bibliography describes a method of extracting knowledge from this material in the systematic pursuit of understanding the past and present through written and printed records. Bibliographers are more interested in comparing different versions of texts than in understanding or evaluating their importance.

Field of study

It is a branch of library science and it is also known as library and information science or LIS and documentation science. By a Belgian named Paul Otlet, the bibliography was established as a branch of the information sciences, he was the founder of the field of documentation, who wrote about “the science of bibliography.”

However, some have recently claimed that “the bibliographical model” is no longer relevant, and that it is no longer used in LIS. Hjrland presented a defense of the bibliographical paradigm (2007).


Carter and Barker (2010) define bibliography as a two-fold scholarly discipline: the systematic presentation of books as physical objects and the structured listing of books (enumerative bibliography) (descriptive bibliography).

These two principles and methods have different functions and have different rationales.

The systematic analysis of a book as a substance or physical artefact is what he means by descriptive bibliography, according to him.

Analytical bibliography, the foundation of descriptive bibliography, looks at the printing and all physical characteristics of a book to find out about its history and transmission.

It is the first step of bibliographic definition, and it teaches descriptive bibliographers the terminology, concepts, and techniques of analysis that they will use in their work.

In their descriptions, descriptive bibliographers adhere to particular conventions and classifications.

W. W. Greg’s pioneering theory arguing for the implementation of formal bibliographic concepts is substantively expanded upon in this book (Greg 29).

Fundamentally, analytical bibliography is concerned with the factual, physical description and history of a text, while descriptive bibliography takes all of the information provided by analytical bibliography and codifies it in order to find the perfect copy or type of a book that most closely reflects the printer’s original conception and purpose in printing.

Analytic bibliographers also use historical bibliography, which looks into printing methods, techniques, and related records, as well as aesthetic bibliography, which looks into the art of designing type and books.

D. F. McKenzie expanded on Greg, Bowers, Gaskell, and Tanselle’s previous ideas about bibliography. “The discipline that studies texts as recorded forms, as well as the processes of their transmission, including their development and reception,” he says of bibliography (1999 12).

This definition expands the reach of bibliography to include “non-book texts” and a description of their content type and structure, as well as textual variants, technological and production processes, and sociocultural context and effects.

McKenzie’s viewpoint places textual artifacts or artefacts in the sense of sociological and technological factors that influence creation, dissemination, and, eventually, ideal copy (2002 14). Bibliography is concerned with the physical state of books [and other texts] and how they are designed, edited, printed, distributed, reproduced, and collected.

Previously, bibliography was primarily concerned with books. Audio files, motion pictures and photographs, graphic items, databases, CD-ROMs, and blogs are also included in all sections of bibliography.

What is Enumerative bibliography

An enumerative bibliography is a collection of books and other works, such as journal articles, that are organized in a systematic manner. Bibliographies can vary from lists of “works cited” at the end of books and papers to full and self-contained publications. Gow’s A is a noteworthy example of a full, independent publication.

They can exist as separate works in bound volumes, such as the ones on the right, or in computerized bibliographic databases. Although not referred to as a “bibliography,” a library catalog is bibliographic in nature. Bibliographical works are almost universally regarded as secondary sources.

Enumerative bibliographies are organized around a common theme, such as a creator, subject, date, content, or other feature. An enumerative bibliography entry contains the essential elements of a text resource, such as the title, creator(s), publication date, and publication location.

An enumerative bibliography differs from other bibliographic types such as descriptive bibliography, analytical bibliography, and textual bibliography in that its aim is to record and list sources rather than to identify them in detail or with some regard to their physical existence, materiality, or textual transmission, according to Belanger (1977).

It is possible for the enumerative list to be exhaustive or selective. Tanselle’s bibliography, for example, exhaustively enumerates subjects and references relevant to all types of bibliography.

Styles of citation differ. A bibliography entry for a book typically includes the following elements:

  • The name of the creator(s)
  • The title of the publication
  • The place of publication
  • The name of the publisher or printer or address
  • The date on which the publication is done

An entry for a journal or periodical article normally includes the following information:

  • What is the creator(s) name?
  • What is the article title?
  • What is the journal title?
  • How many volume doses it has?
  • The number of pages it contains.
  • The date of publication.

An annotated bibliography may be organized by author, subject, or any other criterion. Annotated bibliographies describe how each source aids an author in writing a paper or making an argument.

These brief summaries and explanations of the source’s significance are typically a few sentences long. To keep track of references and create bibliographies as required, reference management software can be used.

Bibliographies vary from library catalogs in that they only include related objects rather than the entire collection of a library. However, since national libraries own almost all of their countries’ publications, their catalogs essentially act as national bibliographies.

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