What is Procedural language?
A procedural language is a sort of computer programming language that has a set of functions, instructions, and statements that must be executed in a certain order to accomplish a job or program. In general, procedural language is used to specify the steps that the computer takes to solve a problem. Computer procedural languages include BASIC, C, FORTRAN, Java, and Pascal, to name a few. To create programs, they use variables, conditional statements, and functions that permit a computer to process and provide the desired output.
Although it allows the users to give computers instructions in a natural language like Chinese, French, or English, computers are unable to understand human communication. Therefore, users cannot do that. Human intelligence can create ambiguities in communication with natural language, but a computer needs a clear instruction, mathematically precise communication system. Every time, all symbols or collections of symbols must have exactly the same meaning.
They also employ unanticipated boundaries, elements, and explanations to present an optimal yield and create codes that allow a PC to find. Script and software programmers employ procedural languages as one of the most frequent forms of programming languages. The programming editor or ides, such as Microsoft Visual Studio, Eclipse, or Adobe Dreamweaver, are used to create a program by using a procedural language. With the help of these editors, users can use one or more procedural languages to develop code, as well as test the code, and fix bugs in the code.
As its name suggests, procedural programming languages depend upon functions, well-organized procedures, or subroutines in a program’s architecture, which helps the computer to provide a desired state or output. A procedural language program is broken down into statements, functions, variables, and conditional operators. Functions and procedures are applied to the data and variables in order to complete a job. These procedures allow the users to call themselves anywhere between the program hierarchy and other procedures also. A procedural language program has one or more procedures.
The procedural programming language casual on the basis of utilization is really being made, which is either arranged or deciphered. For example, FORTRAN is developed to deal with a large project for numerical and logical applications where the execution’s speed is most important; therefore, this language is normally actualized with an accumulator. Then again, BASIC was created for fledgling developers; hence, it is generally executed with a mediator.
Types of Procedural Languages
There are given below some kinds of procedural language:
The major real high-level language was FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator). The quantity of money spent on programming in 1954 was a factor that influenced FORTRAN’s development. The cost of programming intensely affected the cost of operating a computer, and as PCs got less expensive, the situation got worse. John Backus, an American computer scientist, had the opportunity to persuade IBM’s executives that a language with a compiler capable of producing excellent article code could be developed. He was a leader of the group, which had Peter Sheridan, David Sayre, Irving Ziller, and Roy Nutt that developed FORTRAN.
He wanted to develop a language that would be appropriate for scientists and engineers to create programs on their own for the IBM 704. In 1957, the first version of FORTRAN was introduced, and FORTRAN II was released by following it in 1958. In FORTRAN II, better diagnostic messages and function statements are available. The FORTRAN III, an advanced version of the FORTRAN language, was not made into a commercial product that was depended heavily on the architecture of the IBM 704. However, its descendant FORTRAN IV, which was published in 1962 and had a life of over fifteen years, included numerous features.
By the mid-1970s, FORTRAN IV was no longer a current language; nonetheless, the investment in FORTRAN programs was so large. Later, work started on developing FORTRAN 77 in 1967, and in April of 1978, it became the official standard. With the time, in December 1997, an extension of FORTRAN 90, FORTRAN 95, was published. In 2001, working was underway on FORTRAN 200x, which had support for object-oriented programming, exception handling, and improved interoperability with C. Additionally, it was an upward compatible extension of FORTRAN 95.
In the range of 1956 and 1959, because many languages and dialects were developed making convey ability problems, various computer groups petitioned ACM to suggest an activity for the production of a universal programming language. Starting in January 1958, delegates from production and colleges were appointed to a group that met many times and agreed that the new dialect would be an algebraic language like FORTRAN. However, because FORTRAN was created by IBM and is tightly linked to IBM technology, it could not be used as a universal language.
At the meetings, John Backus and Alan Perlis, and other members of the group were selected to represent the American viewpoint. ALGOL 58 was the first to combine the greatest aspects of programming languages with explicit attempts to address portability difficulties; as a result, it was really a collaborative effort. It came with new terms like three levels of language description; the beginning end delimiters, type, for statement, and formal versus an actual parameter.
Backus and Perlis, together with six other Americans, Peter Naur and Fritz Bauer, and representatives from seven European countries gathered in Paris in January 1960 to create ALGOL 60. They had the intention to become it a universal tool by including some features within it, such as call by value and call by name, block, global and local variables, if then else, until, while, dynamic arrays, and recursion. ALGOL 60 had a great impact on future language developments, and it became the standard for the publication of algorithms.
In the early 1960s, there were no personal computers. If you needed to compute something, you had to punch your program onto cards, transport them to the nearest PC, and then wait hours for the results. Computer programming was too important to building understudies and expert software engineers, which was accepted by Thomas E. Kurtz, Kemeny, and John G, educators at Dartmouth College. They designed and built a time-sharing system and built up the BASIC (Beginners All-reason Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. Their objectives involved a reasonable blunder message in English, the ability to accommodate large programs, ease of learning for the beginner, equipment, and working framework autonomy. In 1964, BASIC became available for users. In spite of the fact that the present adaptations of BASIC run under interpreters, Kemeny and Kurtz actualized it to run with a compiler at that time.
Because BASIC has the ability to handle business, scientific, and educational applications, it is characterized as a general-purpose language. Unluckily, software companies and computer manufacturers have widely extended and modified this language. A more powerful and versatile form, “true BASIC,” was developed by Kemeny and Kurtz in 1983 that follows the proposed ANSI standards. It included some features, such as independent subprograms, array-handling statements, a SELECT case structure, line numbers, and long variable names. Furthermore, BASIC was an easy language to teach and learn; therefore, it was widely accepted in the educational community.
Following the announcement of FORTRAN in April 1959, a group of academics, PC customers, and PC producers, including American programming pioneer Grace Hopper, convened to discuss the feasibility of developing a programming language that would meet the demands of the business network and become a standard. Business applications deal with enormous amounts of data but don’t do difficult computations, therefore FORTRAN didn’t always meet their demands. Living programming languages were not portable; they could only run on one type of computer, be it scientific or commercial. Large enterprises’ use of several types of PCs resulted in an increase in the cost of software in certain circumstances since their developers required to master a few languages. For example, the United States Division of Protection had over 1,000 computers, and it cost the Department of Defense almost $499 million each year to program and maintain them.
COBOL variable names can be up to 30 characters long, and their commands are written by using English words and syntax, which make them very descriptive. These features help nonprogrammers to read and understand COBOL programs and even make them capable of debugging and maintaining them easily. The American business community readily accepted COBOL programs as they are highly portable. The Report Writer and Sort features were added in the initial iteration of COBOL, which was extensively deployed in 1961. In 1965 and 1968, COBOL has revised again that became the first ANSI standard compiler. COBOL 85 included an in-line PERFORM, END IF, and a direct case structure, END PERFORM, as part of an effort to make it more structured programming friendly.
A Swiss computer scientist, Niklaus Wirth developed Pascal language. He was crucial to the ALGOL 68 committee’s success. He thought ALGOL was too complicated, and he wanted to come up with a coding language that could be taught to college students quickly. The new language was distributed in 1971, which is a derivative of ALGOL and was later known as Pascal. Pascal combines the 1960s ideas of structured programming, methods, reworking ALGOL’s notion of splitting code into belts, procedures, and capacities, as well as improving on some of ALGOL’s features with the addition of additional information types and control forms.
As compared to the original programmer, its form makes codes simpler to peruse and maintain by people. Programs are portable between different computers because there are varieties between Pascal accumulators; the language has a fairly standard form. At the University of California at San Diego, the idea of Wirth was found its most important audience, wherein late 1974 work began on the compiler and Pascal operating system by Kenneth Bowles. He continued to create a whole system including a text editor, a linker, a compiler, an assembler, a set of utility programs, and a file-handling utility.
It started to obtain national attention by 1978. In the educational community, it achieved wide acceptance with the growth of personal computers. Because Pascal’s input and output features were limited, it was primarily used as a teaching tool, making it unfeasible for developing commercial software. It was, nevertheless, the foundation for Modula-2, Ada, and other programming languages.
Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson of Bell Laboratories created the C programming language in 1972. It is a descendent of the ALGOL 60 or a relative of the ALGOL 60. Their objective was to develop a language that would connect substantial level tongue highlighting with those that regulate low-level programming. This built C appropriate for writing compilers, firm applications, as well as operating systems. A standard for C was defined in 1988, as C compilers have the potential to essentially run on all tools; furthermore, most C programs are portable. On the other hand, C, composed by a developer, has been defined as a programming language, which implies that it is difficult to learn.
C offers several data types and upholds organized programming languages. For case, an integral part of C is pointer arithmetic, just like the use of capacities that may be called recursively. Although input and output statements are not part of the language, they are capabilities that have been identified in a “library” and are ready to be utilized when needed. Memory allocation, character capacities, and string management are only a few of the functions found in a conventional UNIX C library.
In addition to external, unchanged factors and programs, C offers register variables, which abbreviate execution time as they utilize indexes. C offers the ability to the programmers to work on big data by using the bit operators for SHIFT LEFT, SHIFT RIGHT, Exclusive OR, AND, one’s complement, furthermore provides great control over data manipulation.
Ada was first developed in 1975 with funding from the US Department of Defense (DoD) for use in military PC frameworks. The cost of developing and maintaining DoD applications was ballooning owing to the variety of programming languages in use, therefore these procedures were required. The Department of Defense employed at least 450 different scripts and languages in the mid-1970s.
The DoD utilizes the greater part of its programming efforts to direct military hardware, such as tanks, atomic bombs, planes. Those projects execute in real-time, simultaneously as a tank is moving or a plane is in the air. For case, a fighter pilot cannot wait for the PC to forward back the outcomes later in the day in order to play out its central goal. Although ongoing frameworks can work outside of the device they manage, they can also be embedded inside a bigger framework, like a machine or robot.
In order to find the exact language for DoD’s requirements, the HOLWG High Order Language Working Group was formed in 1975. The Pascal, ALGOL 68, and PL/I were the foundations for the definition and design of this language. That was known as Ada. In 1982, an improved version of it came out, ANSI adopted a new standard for Ada in 1995. The primary intention of developing Ada was to reduce the cost of software development, mainly for large software that will be used for a long period of time. The “package” is the fundamental idea of this language that works for splitting a program into modules, which can be stored in a library until needed, compiled, and tested separately. This helps programmers easy to write, debug, and maintain large programs.
Generally, it is not much difficult to learn Ada language for beginners, but programming knowledge and experience are needed to use its full capacity. Thus, Ada is a language suited for advanced programmers, especially appropriate for systems programming, real-time systems, large projects.
Advantage of Procedural Languages
There are various advantages of Procedural Languages, which are given below:
- The program of Procedural Programming language forwardness apace with the utilization of interpreters and accumulators.
- This language clarifies the source code and can be understood easily.
- Without the need for copying this, the code may reuse in various piece of code.
- For various purposes, the Procedural Programming language utilizes different parts of memory.
- There are multiple General-Purpose programming languages, which support it.
- It makes it easy to track as it flows the program in a linear direction.
Disadvantages of Procedural Languages
Various disadvantages of Procedural Languages are given below:
- When Procedural languages are employed, its program is harder to write.
- Also, with a real-world problem, this language is not very practical.
- It builds less safety inviting because the information is available to the whole code.
- It can form a complex program as it has the potential to solve real-world problems.
- The information is vulnerable in this, and it is not practicable with a true issue.
Uses of Procedural languages
Procedural programming languages are utilized by content and programming developers. For creating programs and showing the ideal yield, they use factors, restrictive proclamations, and capacities. This is the reason; it is called a procedural programming language. Creating a program by using a procedural language may implement by employing a programming manager, android Studio, or similar to an eclipse.